Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis - LCM

  • Diagnosis
  • Background
  • Lab Tests
  • References
  • Related Content

Indications for Testing

Laboratory Testing

  • Antibody testing by complement fixation of serum and cerebrospinal fluid

Differential Diagnosis

Lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM) virus is spread by rodents. It can be deadly to immunocompromised patients but rarely affects healthy individuals.

Epidemiology

  • Incidence – <5% seropositivity in U.S. adults
  • Transmission
    • Rodents are the primary reservoir
    • Transmission to humans
      • Aerosolization of excreta and secreta of the common house mouse, pet hamster, and pet rat
      • Recent reports of solid organ transplant transmission

Organism

  • RNA virus in the Arenaviridae family

Risk Factors

  • Immunocompromised state
  • Pregnancy

Clinical Presentation

  • Symptoms develop 5-10 days after exposure
    • Infection usually presents as an acute influenza-like illness
      • Most patients develop fevers of 101-104° F with chills and muscle rigidity
    • Other symptoms may include malaise, retro-orbital headache, photophobia, weakness, anorexia, nausea, light-headedness, and sore throat
  • Symptoms usually improve within 5 days to 3 weeks; patients may suffer relapse with meningeal symptoms
  • Suspect in patients with marked leukopenia and thrombocytopenia on presentation
  • Associated conditions – orchitis, aseptic meningitis, transient alopecia, and maculopapular rash
  • Congenital infections may cause stillbirths – hydrocephalus, chorioretinitis, or TORCH-negative hydrocephalus

Treatment

  • Treatment is symptomatic

Indications for Laboratory Testing

Tests generally appear in the order most useful for common clinical situations.
Click on number for test-specific information in the ARUP Laboratory Test Directory

Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis (LCM) Virus Antibodies, IgG & IgM 2001635
Method: Semi-Quantitative Indirect Fluorescent Antibody

Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis (LCM) Virus Antibodies, IgG & IgM, CSF 2001628
Method: Semi-Quantitative Indirect Fluorescent Antibody

Additional Tests Available

Encephalitis Panel with Reflex to Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 Glycoprotein G-Specific Antibodies, IgG, CSF 2008916
Method: Semi-Quantitative Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/Semi-Quantitative Chemiluminescent Immunoassay

Encephalitis Panel with Reflex to Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 Glycoprotein G-Specific Antibodies, IgG, Serum 2008915
Method: Semi-Quantitative Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/Semi-Quantitative Chemiluminescent Immunoassay

Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis (LCM) Virus Antibody, IgG, CSF 2001629
Method: Semi-Quantitative Indirect Fluorescent Antibody

Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis (LCM) Virus Antibody, IgG 2001633
Method: Semi-Quantitative Indirect Fluorescent Antibody

Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis (LCM) Virus Antibody, IgM 2001634
Method: Semi-Quantitative Indirect Fluorescent Antibody

Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis (LCM) Virus Antibody, IgM, CSF 2001630
Method: Semi-Quantitative Indirect Fluorescent Antibody

General References

Jamieson D, Kourtis A, Bell M, Rasmussen S. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus: an emerging obstetric pathogen? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006; 194(6): 1532-6. PubMed

Kang S, McGavern D. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis infection of the central nervous system. Front Biosci. 2008; 13: 4529-43. PubMed

Kotton C. Zoonoses in solid-organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Clin Infect Dis. 2007; 44(6): 857-66. PubMed

Rawlinson W, Hall B, Jones C, Jeffery H, Arbuckle S, Graf N, Howard J, Morris J. Viruses and other infections in stillbirth: what is the evidence and what should we be doing? Pathology. 2008; 40(2): 149-60. PubMed

Medical Reviewers

Last Update: December 2015